Organizational Behavior Final Paper Essay Sample | Sample Paper on Organizational Behavior
Table of Contents
- SECTION 1: EXECUTIVE SUMMARY 3
- SECTION 2: PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT 6
- 2.1 Applicant 1 N.H 6
- 2.2 Applicant 2 J.B 7
- SECTION 3: EMPLOYEE MOTIVATION 8
- SECTION 4: TEAM MANAGEMENT 10
- 4.1 Group Characteristics 1: Cohesion 11
- 4.2 Group Characteristic 2: Development Stage (positive and negative impacts) 11
- 4.3 Situational Analysis 12
- SECTION 5: LEADERSHIP MANAGEMENT 13
- The group’s dependency on leadership. 13
- 5.1 Management Styles 13
- 5.2 Concern for task 14
- 5.3 Concern for people 15
- SECTION 6: STRUCTURE 17
- Theoretical Framework: Contingency Theory 17
- 6.1 Dimension 1: Standardisation 18
- 6.2 Dimension 2: Professionalism 18
- 6.3 Dimension 3: Centralisation 19
- SECTION 7: ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURE 20
- 7.1 Assumption 1: The nature of reality and truth 20
- 7.2 Assumption 2: The nature of human activity 21
- SECTION 8: RECOMMENDATIONS FOR IMPROVEMENT 24
- 8.1 Motivation 24
- 8.2 Culture 24
- Conclusion 25
- Bibliography 26
SECTION 1: EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
The medical organization that is the subject of this evaluation is privately owned and operated, and it maintains strict confidentiality clauses. For this reason, the organization will be evaluated as an anonymous entity throughout this review. It is worth noting that based on the sensitivity of the information contained herein, anonymity of the characters is a necessity.
For approximately 22 years, the medical clinic has been operating in Ontario, Canada. This facility was founded and is headed by a doctor who will be identified as Dr. X, a Professor of Clinical Medicine and a specialist in metabolic bone illnesses. As a leader in her field, she is a sought-after healthcare provider who attends to the needs of local, national, and international patients. Remarkably, services at the center are covered by the Provincial Government (PG) for residents and some drug treatments that follow are also covered.
Within this fast-paced environment, services offered range from standard consultations and follow-up assessments to clinical trials and on-site drug treatments. Typical day to day operations include a variety of tasks that require the utmost regard for confidentiality and accuracy. Internal procedures involve assessment of incoming patient referrals, booking and referring patients to appropriate facilities for follow-up, ensuring proper record keeping is safeguarded, etc. External communications with patients, hospitals, relevant doctors’ offices/facilities and pharmaceutical partners are carefully engaged with tact and appropriate sensitivities. There are approximately 10 staff members in total; this does not include volunteer staff, research temporary research assistants, and student observers. The Office Manager at the Center is responsible for operations and facilitation of internal and external relationships in a manner that serves the practice. Additionally, the manager acts as an executive assistant to the physician, which includes management of the doctors’ personal and professional schedules. Best practice, in terms of staffing in an Ontario health care facility, involves careful assessment towards strong guarantees for long-term employee commitment (Miner, 2006). Patients become fond of staff members and feel reassured by familiar faces who they feel “know” them, especially in such a personal and sensitive context. In this industry, the turnover rate is generally low for that reason.
The anecdotal evidence is based on my time spent at the clinic (2005-2011) as the employee who remained at the office the longest. Observations were made through dialogue, intimate knowledge of patient and staff records and a close relationship with the doctor.
Evaluation of performance and employee participation in health care is a traditional practice. The entirety of the program is normally executed with the aim to ascertain the satisfaction indices of the patients. The results of the evaluation procedures are thereafter employed in depicting the exact places that require adjustments (Miner, 2006). The evaluation is based on the center's development from 2005 – 2011. Criteria include organizational members, methods of motivation, group dynamic, leadership style, organizational structure and organizational culture.
In summary, the operations within the center are exclusively orchestrated. For instance, it is notable that the seven relies on seven subsystems: accounting, treatment team (nurse), cleaning, student services and physician assistants, General Administration, Remote – transcription/administration, Exec Assistant/Management that combine to execute the projected mission of operations. Further, the team at the second clinic operates independently from the main clinic. Within this evaluation, the main assessments will apply to the administrative and management units. All other subsystems maintain a much higher degree of autonomy.
SECTION 2: PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT
The success of the organization is based on the individual contribution of each member. To analyze the progress, the personality analysis herein gives the insight of individual management of the organization. Type of personalities in the past, detailed analysis of applicant, herein referred to as 1 N.H, and applicant 2, herein referred to as J.B, references to past problems associated to GMA; the reason why GMA is usually stated as the preferred screening characteristic but not always applied as such by the center.
2.1 Applicant 1 N.H
The applicant was considered based on references from friends. Not experienced, although did possess a degree in another area of study. The methods used to assess the member included screening the CV, conducting an in-person interview, which included an on-site test and after being retained as a staff member, additional training as needed. References were not reviewed by the management which suggests that this applicant was known by the doctor.
The recommendation from the manager was that N.H was not to be hired as an administrator based on the results of the interview. N.H. displayed very low levels of maturity and presented herself as such which made way for questioning of her general mental ability (GMA). The recommendation was ignored by the doctor, potentially because of personal affiliations, but there also existed a state of desperation due to the urgent need for a new administrator, which may have also affected the doctor's final decision. Within two months on the job, N.H. displayed a gross error in judgment by taking the initiatives inappropriately. She cleaned the doctor's office and cleared off all paperwork from the doctor's desk. Some of these papers were thrown in the garbage by N.H. in an attempt to help. The result was disastrous. Much of what remained on the doctor's desk is critical to her practice and research efforts. That incident set the doctor behind in several areas affecting patient care. Even after this clear display of incompetence, N.H. remained on staff roll.
Generally, general mental ability is a considerable facet in assessing performance. An aspect, such as understanding of job descriptions and the targets relies on the effectiveness of the mental ability of the employee (Miner, 2007). If ignored, chances are high that such an employee can overstep their duties, which leads to remarkable impacts as evident in the illustration.
2.2 Applicant 2 J.B
In contrast to applicant 1, J.B. was highly qualified. She went through the same screening process listed above and required very little training.
J.B. was not given the opportunity to take on more responsibilities at the office, though she requested it and demonstrated a clear ability to handle all areas of office administration at an executive level. Instead, the doctor used J.B. for tasks that general administrators could address, whether managing patient data, booking appointments, or scheduling an occasional community educational program. When the manager asked why J.B.’s skills were not being appropriately utilized, the doctor stated that she preferred to continue with the manager handling all the most important tasks.
J.B’s case provides an insight on hiring within organizations. To achieve the goals of specific duties, an individual needs the inputs of personal characteristics necessary for the specified roles. Specifically, an individual needs the personal characteristics of perseverance, outstanding decision making skills, and the ability to learn situations to succeed in a highly changing medical firm. From J.B’s case, it is notable that duty specialization is as well a primary factor in enhancing efficiency in particular individuals. Further, according employees sound operational environments enhances their confidence and knowledge in executing their duties.
SECTION 3: EMPLOYEE MOTIVATION
Within an organization, motivation is a primary factor in measuring performance. In the time spent at the clinic, I did not experience any organization based motivational efforts towards staff until the establishment of office meetings. These meetings provided members with a greater outlet to give and receive immediate feedback, to collaborate as teams, and gain insight into the other subsystems within the clinic. From the analysis, a lot was learnt about the theoretical approaches explored by the facility in motivating employees, and the differences manifested on how individuals respond to varied sets of motivational platforms.
My personal motivations for working at the clinic were directly linked to the Equity Theory, which suggests that individuals are highly motivated when they feel that the organization explores equitable grounds to execute such motivations (Hiriyappa, 2009). The positive inequity of superiors (and at times, myself), in comparison to the negative equity undeservingly, imposed others, has always determined my commitment or lack of, to an organization (Miles, 2012). Other theories, including Maslow’s theory of motivation did resonate with me, but I found equitable conditions were always the top priority for me. As a senior level administrator, suggesting changes and implementing them was encouraged. The equitable approach to work motivated me to establish office meetings.
The clinic meetings were casual, weekly and purposeful. The main results sought were cohesion and collaborative efforts. During meetings, vision and mission statements were shared, as well as a company overview. Much of the communication within the organization was previously shared from the top-down, but these meetings created an essential platform for sharing from the bottom-up.
Other units within the organization may share similar motivations. For example, the student services/assistant physicians unit is concerned with learning and gaining work experience in, addition to securing favourable recommendation letters. This may translate into the Maslow’s theory. The motivation, here, is based on the understanding that upon completing a particular challenging task, an individual is automatically inspired to keep their good work amidst learning (Hiriyappa, 2009). The accounting unit is generally more concerned about hours of work and flexibility within the work schedule, suggesting that Hertzberg’s two-factor theory may be the most suitable concept that serves their interests. It is worth remarking that the two factor theory feature emphasizes the job aspects that instigate comfort of employees within their working environments (Bassett-Jones, 2005). Remote administrative unit has similar interests and may also connect with the two factor theory.
From the perspective of the organization, the concept of motivation is specific to each individual and deeply rooted in many mental/emotional processes. A variety of theories are, therefore, naturally fitting. Every individual has particular objectives that they would like to achieve in life (Vroom, 2007). As such, they expect the organizations to respond to such specific needs so as to enhance their performances (Aquinas, 2010). It is worth noting that motivation is an important organizational prospect as it instills the desire by individuals to perform within their maximum limits (Hiriyappa, 2009).
SECTION 4: TEAM MANAGEMENT
This section examines how working in a group may affect the individual motivation to contribute effort. Further, the section defines groups within organizational settings before giving an analysis of the general group characteristics that are relevant for motivations.
Teams are strategic groups within an organization. That is, a team is a group of professionals from different areas of specialization who gather to implement a task that requires complimentary professionalism(Hiriyappa, 2009). Remarkably, the centre has seven subsystems: One accountant secures AR; treatment team consists of three nurses who facilitate regular treatments and manage critical patient data. Two members of the cleaning staff ensure the office is presentable and sanitary. Student services and physician assistants observe and assist, respectively, the doctor with patient care. The volume of students and assistants varies and is dependent on the doctors’ availability and activities (Casey-Campbell, & Martens, 2009). General administration and Remote – transcription/administration have similar functions, but do operate independent of one another. Both focus on the day-to-day operations of the office maintaining and generating workflow for the clinic. Executive Assistant/Management team oversees all units and functionality of the office. The two group characteristics that have had the greatest impact on the administrative unit are cohesion and the development stage (Schermerhorn, 2012). Managing through a transition proved challenging for most members, some opting to leave the organisation instead of waiting for lasting change.
4.1 Group Characteristics 1: Cohesion
Within the medical office there are approximately 10 members of the group and it is not cohesive. Cohesion is the extent to which individual members want to contribute toe the success of a team (Hiriyappa, 2009). Many internal issues prevent cohesion such as the absence of leadership, task clarity, no link to common goals, no platform for staff input, lack of comradery, etc. There is a high turnover rate and it the environment is one that supports a ‘clock-in, clock-out’ attitude (Ross & Ross, 1989).
The tasks are viewed as isolated efforts rather than that which leads to collective goals. Productivity is low and inconsistent, there is no unified way to complete tasks – individual approaches are often taken. Task continuity and follow-up are affected by these approaches. The office is seemingly in a continuous training phase due to the turnover rate.
The issues started improving with the establishment of meetings, the appointment of an office manager and standardizing the approach to inter-dependant tasks. This still placed the office in a transition phase which does not secure a reasonable turnover rate.
Closer interaction of group members as evident in the above characteristic is important in two ways. Primarily, it creates the feeling of belonging into the organization for each member of the group. Further, through the interactional characteristics, members create a wider understanding of each other (French, 2011). As such, people begin to note the strengths and weaknesses of fellow group members, which is necessary in providing uniform outputs.
4.2 Group Characteristic 2: Development Stage (positive and negative impacts)
Given the history above, group development through forming and storming do occur consistently, but with the high turnover rate, norming and performing are barely reached by the entire group. Instead with the removal or resignation of a group member, the adjourning phase is often looped in right after storming before top performance can ever be achieved.
The developmental characteristic of groups is important within specified matrices. For instance, when the developmental stages are marked, groups can tell if they are destined to meet their objectives or if they have higher possibilities of failures (Kramer & Staw, 2003). Further, the developmental stages of the groups anchor the systematic manners in which interpersonal organizational relationships should be handled. Thus, the developmental characteristic of a group is a vital ingredient in tabulating the possibility of success of a group.
4.3 Situational Analysis
For months there was continuous discussion and expression of an office transition to a larger space that would accommodate the entire team. Those discussions were held between business owner and management, between the manager and employees and expressed between employees. Most staff members were very upset about feeling ‘crammed’ into a small space and being expected to complete tasks rapidly in what seemed like regular chaos under the guise of ‘fast-paced’ (Kramer & Staw, 2003). This may have been one of the factors that contributed to a high staff turnover rate.
By noting the situation, organizational members should understand that organizations operate within the confines of limited resources. However, given an opportunity, the organization should maximize their available resources to achieve development. Within a situation where employees feel oppressed, leadership is necessary for a number of reasons (Alvesson, 2013). Primarily, it is the leaders who inform the employees of the causes of a situation and how they are to be handled. Further, following the sensitivity of their operational environment, leaders would be necessary in guiding the members into efficient utility of the scarce resources.
SECTION 5: LEADERSHIP MANAGEMENT
The group’s dependency on leadership.
As noted, it is critical for the teams to have leaders. Such leaders perform the tasks of guiding their followers within the missions and objectives of the organization. The same leaders are responsible of motivating the employees. As such, aspects of leadership such as the management styles, the general behavior within an organization, concern for task, and concern for people are primary analytical bases.
5.1 Management Styles
To be effective, a leader should not be strict to particular leadership styles. Thus, such can explore styles such as the democratic styles that detail contributions from all members of the group. Further, the leader can explore autocratic style where decisions are decentralized or laissez-faire style where each member is let to understand their role (Kramer & Staw, 2003). Notably, each style should be evaluated to ascertain its effectiveness before implementation.
It is necessary for the group to be organized in order to be effective. Leadership then becomes an essential management function. According to Robert Blake and Jane Mouton (1964), the authority-obedience leadership approach is relevant to the eventual performance indices. The management style at the Oakville Bone Centre is closest to this description. The manager displayed a very high concern for task and a medium concern for people. This approach produced both negative and positive results.
5.2 Concern for task
Different models of leadership defines varied ways of executing the mission statements. Concern for task is a leadership tenet that examines the emphasis of a leader in concentrating on particular tasks that bear importance to the achievement of the mission (Hiriyappa, 2009).The tasks are an important consideration. Knowing the margins allotted for mistakes, timeframes, continuity, etc. can increase or decrease the level of concern for any given task. Training new staff members can significantly impede task completion and for this reason, the management team maintained a uniform approach to most tasks. Allowing untrained and inexperienced staff members the freedom to try new ideas within a busy medical practice is impractical and could yield disastrous results. The main focus during all tasks related to patient care is maintaining attention to detail (Miner, 2006). Having a greater concern for people in this situation is detrimental to that focus. If the centre was hiring experienced medical staff, I believe there would be an equal distribution of concern for tasks and people. The autocratic leader is one who makes the majority of the decisions, Kurt Lewin and his colleagues (1939). The relationships within this type of environment at the centre were civil and warm but lacked connection and honesty between management and staff.
Depending on the strategic intent of the organization, different tasks can be accorded to different matrices. Specifically, the tasks should feature aspects such as project management, team management, and management of appointments, decision making, goal setting and achievement of goals, delegation, and management of deadlines Schermerhorn (2012). The tasks are executed both individually and collectively.
Remarkably, the tasks are associated with varied risks. For instance, poor management of deadlines is risky as it creates mistrust among clients, mismanagement of appointments leads to loss of stakeholders such as business partners, poor decision making leads to higher chances in failures to pursue goals, and organizations without specific goals risk losing their competitive edges. Thus, development of high concern tasks is necessary (Alvesson, 2013). Definitively, high concern tasks are those tasks that bear higher risks if not attended to in appropriate time spans. For instance, poor decision making is a high concern task as it determines whether all-round organizational performance is executed or not.
5.3 Concern for people
People are known to execute the particulars within an organization. Concern for people, therefore, describes the emphasis by the leadership to instill organization-wide success by focusing on the performance of individuals (Hiriyappa, 2009).There was a genuine approach to see to the interests and needs of staff members. People within the centre were valued but the reality was that many staff members were in and out of the organization. The manager was constantly training new staff members and doing her best to address the concerns that were causing them to leave. One frequent concern was salary and another was the lack of connection with the doctor. Many staff members thought that in taking the position, they would be able to work side by side with a physician and were disappointed that this was not the case. There were also frequent complaints about the limited amount of space provided for staff members to work. This may have been the default reasoning behind an autocratic approach to leadership.
In some occasions, the autocratic approach is warranted. For instance, when the decisions are to be made in haste, the leader is obliged to make decisions with little consultations. Further, autocratic approaches are necessary where the leader believes that their decisions are right, and instilling consultations is a mere waste of time (Schermerhorn, 2012).
Remarkably, low concern for people is one of the aspects that motivate particular decisions. Definitively, low concern for people means overemphasis on tasks at the expense of the stakeholders. To an organization, the task should follow the concern for people for organizations operate so as to satisfy the needs of the people and not vice versa.
Situational factors may be defining reasons for the managerial approaches at the centre. Yielding to classic contingency theories that assume all situations are not the same and therefore require different leadership methods, the manager was at times a transformational leader that was highly motivational and charged with expansion of the individual self-interests towards collective group interests and at other times there was a lack of desire to lead at all, displaying a Laissez-faire style of leadership (PDF, pg59 and 61). The manager was inexperienced, untrained and unmonitored and this may have also contributed to the many default or unconscious leadership approaches which seem natural in the face of a high company turnover. Kurt Lewin and his colleagues (1939) suggest that the autocratic approach can lead to hostility between followers and towards the leader (PDF, 58).
The choice for a management style for a manager should be executed with a lot of care. For instance, depending on the intensity of the situation, a manager is normally obliged to revitalize their styles. However, a manager should have an insight of the style of choice as each can have particular negative consequences on the output of the organization. To this end, the managers’ approach was ineffective and it could even be argued that the manager contributed to the turnover rate. However in assessing the periods where the manager did use a team management approach, it was clear that the turnover rate was still high, the positive and negative impacts. The particular positive effects include aspects such as task precision, improved record keeping, improved scheduling systems, installation of automated tasks such as reminer calls, response to patients in time, reduced cases of misfiling, and reduced booking errors. The negative effects, on the other hand include the high rates of turnover, cold staff impression of the management, overlapping shifts that create limited working spaces, little interaction of staff with limited meetings, little consideration of payscales against workloads, and poor relationships with the doctor.
From the analytical point of view, a manager notices their effectiveness from various stand points. Notably, execution of goals is a primary point in the understanding of effectiveness. The manager can as well complete their tasks by instilling the sense of motivation within their job descriptions (Baligh, 2006). To achieve such dynamism in management, the choice of style must be analyzed. Finally, leadership is a critical function and it impacts the organisational structure (Keyton, 2011). That is, the flexibility of a structure is dependent on how flexible leadership is.
SECTION 6: STRUCTURE
The structure in place at the clinic appears to have impacted the members very negatively as many did not stay within the organisation for more than a few months, at best 1 year at a time. In exploring three important dimensions, the impact on employee behaviour, activities and performance will be further clarified.
Theoretical Framework: Contingency Theory
“Two most notable contingency theories linking environmental uncertainty to organisational structure are the theory proposed by British sociologists Tom Burns and G. M. Stalker (1961) and the theory proposed by American organisation theorists Paul R. Lawrence and Jay W. Lorsch (1967).” (PDF, 79). The contingency theory analyzes primary performance aspects of organizational performance that have to be analyzed, and whose effectiveness has to be evaluated (Thomas, 2002). Whenever a primary task fails, substitutions in the forms of contingency plans should be executed.
6.1 Dimension 1: Standardisation
Office day preparation, chart pulling, down as the staff member saw fit, no order – resulted in wrong charts being pulled or some not being pulled out at all.
Records management – dates listed in different places, Patient Follow-up notes. Within such a context, retrieval of information becomes difficult and time consuming in a faced-paced situation (Miner, 2006). Also, the margin for error is zero in terms of pulling the correct chart and filing the correct records in the correct chart – but because this is not standardized – these types of mistakes occur often. There have been many inconsistencies in our records management system (filing, documenting dates on incoming/outgoing correspondence, slow task completion due to lack of written info on procedures.
Checking in and out with the doctor, since there was no procedure, staff members asked the on-site the transcriptionist to go home for the day only to find out that the doctor needed her to transcribe an urgent letter. Cleaning errors are another low points where sometimes mirrors, change tables, and occasionally garbage’s would be left untidy or below satisfactory level. All this improper management is due to lack of standardisation.
From the standardization point of view, every member within the organization has a role to play in executing the mission. An aspect such as standardization is important in noting errors and correcting them against the standards.
6.2 Dimension 2: Professionalism
An increase in professionals would result in lower company complexity which may reduce lag time in certain areas such as:
Separate tasks – accounting, booking new patients, booking regular patients, managing documents and aspects such as scheduling, cleaning, filing, reminder calls, patient follow-up, dictations, mail prep and delivery.
Staff development and monitoring would be significantly reduced with notably professionalism in specific task areas. Remarkably, most employees are entry level without experience, thus, there is a large learning curve for most and without GMA, too many issues in transitioning to high levels of performance. Basically, the primary impact organisational members’ activities and performance is noted on the consistent failure to meet the performance requirements (Miner, 2006).
6.3 Dimension 3: Centralisation
It is understandable that the major decisions are what drive the direction of the business and staff do not seem to be bothered with limited input here. Within the day-to-day operations, staff members would like their voices heard. Suppression creates a sense of insignificance of the employee role and dissatisfaction if unable to make changes or be considered as a valuable collaborator (Latham, 2011). If performance is not executed within defined matrices, motivations are hampered and failures are definite possibilities.
Allowing staff members who do not have the professional training or experience within the practice to maintain autonomy within their given tasks accounts for most of the severe mistakes in the office. There are too many occurrences to recall. The complexity of the small practice is high and appropriate when the demographic served and the lack of professionalism is considered. 9 units operate both on-site and remotely. Of the 9 units, 3 are below the desired level of operations and these units are the most important components of the company. Collectively they represent the face of the business and account for patient trust, care and follow-up. The business benefits from low salary payout but sacrificing standardisation, professionalism and centralisation will continue to result in major errors and high-turnover rates. The harm far outweighs the benefit.
SECTION 7: ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURE
Existing organization culture is primary to execution of consistency. According to Schermerhorn (2012), this culture defines how the organization should operate within a particular context. Addressing two assumptions, the nature of reality and truth and the nature of human activity as defined by operational behaviors will reveal the organisations cultural influences on the staff members. These assumptions negatively displayed themselves in several artefacts and values (Miner, 2006). The verbalized group values for job performance, continuing education, and overall work environment were contradicted through enacted values.
7.1 Assumption 1: The nature of reality and truth
Reliance on social consensus generates a better understanding of reality and truth within the office. Rituals, stories, language and the interior design of the office are a few important artefacts that reveal the concluded realities shared by employees. Additionally, values espoused and enacted are greatly influenced by these conclusions as well.
Members engage in the ritual consideration shared of regular coffee runs at the local shop and weekend breakdowns on Monday mornings. Monumental stories, if they exist, have not been shared with employees but the office history of retaining short-term staff is known by all (Kramer & Staw, 2003). Office language involves use of medical terminology and consistently used abbreviated terms both orally and written supporting efficient use of time. A pragmatic understanding exists between staff members regarding the office layout and its limitations.
The values espoused conflict with those enacted as many staff members say they would like to do a good job but there is little attention to detail given to tasks that demand it; the value of learning is expressed but a ‘clock-in, clock-out’ attitude exists where few answers are sought. When asked to spend extra time at home reviewing procedures or brainstorming questions for clarification, most employees did not care to put in that time (Kramer & Staw, 2003). Although the one value that remained consistent was consideration for socializing and working in a fun environment. Employees did laugh together and chat at times, inappropriately. This may have easily contributed to the degree of patient care, effecting external customer care response times and quality of records management.
7.2 Assumption 2: The nature of human activity
According to Shein, E.H. (1985), the assumption associated to the nature of human activity asserts that there is an unspoken correct way to behave within an organisation. Staff members took a passive and at times fatalistic approach to daily activities. This assumption displayed itself in several artifacts, including dress code and heroes whilst also through the expressed and demonstrated values.
Observing an appropriate dress code was implemented through an office uniform (navy blue medical scrubs), for front desk and administrative staff during. Large jewelry, tattoos, facial rings of any kind were all prohibited and this was adhered to consistently. On occasion, a staff member would forget to cover a tattoo. Those exempt from the uniform arrived in business casual dress, occasionally breaking that code as well with un-kept appearances, whether untidy facial hair or less than professional attire. The founder of the practice as the ‘hero’ (Shein, E.H. 2017) did not engage with members of the administrative team often or at length; though thoroughly engaged with students, nurses and residents (Maguire, 2003). Administrative employees often expressed a desire to speak with the doctor more often and when this did not happen, some reacted badly, displaying more relaxed attitudes though the environment demanded precision and enthusiasm.
This impact of this passive approach on spoken and enacted values was contradictory. The value of performance and excellent customer care was not maintained because the relaxed approach rarely allowed for appropriate checks and focus required for precision (Alvesson, 2013). Higher learning and job experience was also compromised as the employees were not in an attentive state for learning and were therefore limiting the job experience. As with the previous assumption the value for socialization was maintained.
The overall impact on the daily activities was negative. In greeting patients, some employees would spend more time socializing with the patient than preparing their chart for their visit. Other employees would be relaxed when preparing charts for the week and neglect to take care in observing patients with the same or similar names. This was particularly devastating to the office as the doctor would then take in the wrong patient’s chart and give the present patient the wrong diagnosis. There are also many errors in booking new patients to the clinic. Staff members would neglect to send appropriate requests to the patient's family doctor for all the necessary tests required for the upcoming assessment. The result of this was a wasted visit for the new patient on the day of their booking and loss of time for the doctor, other patients in the waiting room and the initial patient who would now have to complete overdue testing or retrieve those required tests from their family doctor. The office socialization seemed to be the only employee activity that remained intact.
These types of results reiterate the need for change within the organisation. Without drastic changes to the operational culture of the organization, the credibility of the office could remain unsecured.
From the discussed situation, culture is a recipe for organizational control. A strong culture in place dictates the standards within which individuals have to perform. The importance of culture is further accentuated in the image that the organization portrays. Normally, culture is what attracts the public to the organizations services. Thus, an organization feels that their activities are positively controlled if they have a strong culture in place.
SECTION 8: RECOMMENDATIONS FOR IMPROVEMENT
Of all the areas discussed, the motivation and cultural aspects of the organization should meet the necessary changes. Such a recommendation is based on the fact that the two facets combine to form the nature of the organization and its ability to achieve its set objectives. Each Facet is discussed as:
The organization’s motivational model has specific aspects that need revitalization. Primarily, the motivation needs standardization. As noted in the theoretical analysis of the organizational motivation, particular standards and criteria should be developed in executing motivation as employees feel demotivated when the standards are skewed. In extreme cases, a poorly motivated employee can feel that the organization is biased.
To address the problems of motivation, particular actions can be explored. Initially, the organization should punish or motivate based on written standards (Hiriyappa, 2009). That means that the organization must begin by developing a criterion. Further, motivation should be instilled in the culture of the organization where the people should feel motivated individually. Finally, motivation does not necessarily mean rewards. Aspects such as job rotation or provision of challenging tasks motivate employees to do their best.
It is worth noting that failures to motivate employees have consequences. Aspects such as poor innovation, lack of attendance to clients effectively, and the desire to quit are characteristics of poorly motivated human resources (Hiriyappa, 2009). As such, the faster an organization takes steps in motivating their employees the better.
The organization has no standard culture within which to standardize their operations. Such a problem is evident in the lack of professionalism and standardization. Further, it is noted that the organization is not even concerned about critical operational prospects such as hiring (Denison & Mishra, 1995). If such a trend continues, chances are high that the organization will fail.
Incorporating Involvement culture is inward-focused and helps to face a volatile environment. This culture emphasizes employee participation and, to encourage it, places high value on meeting the employees’ needs and creating a caring, family-like atmosphere (Pandey, 2005). This culture also fosters cooperation between employees and between employees and customers. At the same time, employee participation and collaboration between employees (and with customers) allows the organisation to be more responsive to the rapidly changing demands of the environment.
Further, incorporating Adaptability culture is externally focused and developed to meet the requirements of a fast-paced, uncertain environment. This culture encourages experimentation, risk-taking and boundary-breaking and values both a high-speed responsiveness to change in the environment and the ability to initiate change from within the organisation.
Every organization has the chance to succeed no matter how volatile their operational bases are. However, care should be taken in executing the primary avenues that such an organization needs to explore. In as much as all the noted areas of concern, such as culture, leadership, and motivation among others are critical to the success of the organization, it is necessary that the issues are ranked in orders of their importance before they are handled individually. For instance, the facility should address their operational issues whose effectiveness is limited by the unavailability of leadership, proper culture and effective motivation platforms. Such issues can be addressed hierarchically by instilling strong leadership trends with flexible managerial styles. From such a point execution of auxiliary issues can be necessary. Simply put, executing a standardized organizational behavior needs a planned input.
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